jueves, 26 de diciembre de 2013

Continued Renewable Energy Growth

http://www.ren21.net/portals/0/documents/resources/gsr/2013/gsr2013_lowres.pdf
Global demand for renewable energy continued to rise during
2011 and 2012, supplying an estimated 19% of global final
energy consumption in 2011 (the latest year for which data are
available), with a little less than half from traditional biomass
ii
.
Useful heat energy from modern renewable sources accounted
for an estimated 4.1% of total final energy use; hydropower
made up about 3.7%; and an estimated 1.9% was provided
by power from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass, and by
biofuels.
Total renewable power capacity worldwide exceeded 1,470
GW in 2012, up about 8.5% from 2011.
Hydropower rose 3%
to an estimated 990 GW, while other renewables grew 21.5%
to exceed 480 GW.
Globally, wind power accounted for about
39% of renewable power capacity added in 2012, followed by
hydropower and solar PV, each accounting for approximately
26%.
Renewables made up just over half of total net additions to
electric generating capacity from all sources in 2012. By year’s
end, they comprised more than 26% of global generating
capacity and supplied an estimated 21.7% of global electricity,
with 16.5% of electricity provided by hydropower. Industrial,
commercial, and residential consumers are increasingly
becoming producers of renewable power in a growing number
of countries.
Demand continued to rise in the heating and cooling sector,
which offers an immense, yet mostly untapped, potential for
renewable energy deployment. Already, heat from modern
biomass, solar, and geothermal sources represents a significant
portion of the energy derived from renewables, and the sector
is evolving slowly as countries begin to enact support policies.
Trends in the sector include the use of larger systems, increas
-
ing use of combined heat and power (CHP), the feeding of
renewable heat and cooling into district schemes, and the
growing use of modern renewable heat for industrial purposes.
After years of rapid growth, biodiesel production continued
to expand in 2012 but at a much slower rate; fuel ethanol
production peaked in 2010 and has since declined. Small but
growing quantities of gaseous biofuels are being used to fuel
vehicles, and there are limited but increasing initiatives to link
electric transport systems with renewable energy.
Most renewable energy technologies continued to see
expansion in manufacturing and global demand during 2012.
However, uncertain policy environments and declining policy
support affected investment climates in a number of estab
-
lished markets, slowing momentum in Europe, China, and India.
Solar PV and onshore wind power experienced continued
price reductions due to economies of scale and technology
advances, but also due to a production surplus of modules and
turbines. Combined with the international economic crisis and
ongoing tensions in international trade, these developments
have created new challenges for some renewable industries,
and particularly for equipment manufacturers, leading to
industry consolidation. However, they also have opened up new
opportunities and pushed companies to explore new markets.
Renewables are becoming more affordable for a broader range
of consumers in developed and developing countries alike.
Renewables are picking up speed across Asia, Latin America,
the Middle East, and Africa, with new investment in all tech
-
nologies. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and
South Africa, in particular, witnessed the launch of ambitious
new targets in 2012, as well as the emergence of policy
frameworks and renewables deployment. Markets, manufac
-
turing, and investment shifted increasingly towards developing
countries during 2012.
The top countries for renewable power capacity at year’s end
were China, the United States, Brazil, Canada, and Germany;
the top countries for non-hydro capacity were China, the
United States, and Germany, followed by Spain, Italy, and
India. By region, the BRICS nations accounted for 36% of total
global renewable power capacity and almost 27% of non-hydro
renewable capacity. The EU had the most non-hydro capacity
at the end of 2012, with approximately 44% of the global total.
Renewables represent a rapidly rising share of energy supply in
a growing number of countries and regions:
In China, wind power generation increased more than
generation from coal and passed nuclear power output for
the first time.
In the European Union, renewables accounted for almost
70% of additions to electric capacity in 2012, mostly from
solar PV and wind power. In 2011 (the latest year for which
data are available), renewables met 20.6% of the region’s
electricity consumption and 13.4% of gross final energy
consumption.
In Germany, renewables accounted for 22.9% of electricity
consumption (up from 20.5% in 2011), 10.4% of national
heat use, and 12.6% of total final energy demand.
The United States added more capacity from wind power
than any other technology, and all renewables made up
about half of total electric capacity additions during the year.
Further information in:
http://www.ren21.net/portals/0/documents/resources/gsr/2013/gsr2013_lowres.pdf 

sábado, 21 de diciembre de 2013

42.4% of the consumed electricity this year was renewable in Spain; the most was by wind farms (21.1%), as by nuclear stations (21%)

European Union countries will eliminate HFCs gases for their high greenhouse effects,3500 times than CO2

Enhorabuena: Un compromiso se ha alcanzado entre el Parlamento Europeo y los países de la Unión Europea para eliminar progresivamente el uso de los gases de HFCs (hidroflourocarbonos ), de efecto invernadero y destructor de la capa protectora de ozono contra radiaciones UV, usados en sistemas de refrigeración y climatización. Prevén una reducción hasta el año 2030 del 70% de estos gases industriales usados ahora, cuyo poder de efecto invernadero es 3500 veces superior al del CO2, el principal gas de efecto invernadero.http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2013/12/20/l-union-europeenne-va-eliminer-les-supergaz-a-effet-de-serre-hfc_4337885_3244.html

Arab countries could be leaders in the global clean energy club

Saudi Arabia to assess renewable energy sources

martes, 3 de diciembre de 2013

Renewables power up around the world


Source: International Energy Agency outlook 2013
http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/pressmedia/recentpresentations/LondonNovember12.pdf


In November, the International Energy Agency (I.E.A.) released their annual executive summary, in which they projected that, by 2035, renewable energy will account for nearly half of the increase in power generation around the world. China is expected to have the largest growth in energy generation from renewable sources, with an anticipated output greater than the E.U. and U.S. combined. In 2011, China was the country with the highest over-all wind-power capacity. Today, wind-energy production continues to thrive across the country’s vast landscape, though pollution continues to plague its cities. China is the largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world due to the coal electric power plants.


sábado, 16 de noviembre de 2013

Ecotax in France

Fuente: http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1797146003484871507#editor/target=post;postID=4530166989987356406

¿Qué es la ecotasa para vehículos pesados?

Definición

La tasa para vehículos pesados es uno de los proyectos de la ley Grenelle de Medio Ambiente.
 
El Ministerio francés de Ecología, Desarrollo Sostenible, Transportes y Vivienda ha elaborado esta ecotasa en colaboración con el consorcio Ecomouv', la empresa encargada de la implementación de la tasa. Este sistema de tasación ecológica es un canon kilométrico para que los vehículos pesados paguen por el uso de la red nacional de carreteras sin concesión.

Aplicación

La medida afecta a todos los vehículos de transporte de mercancías de más de 3,5 toneladas que circulen por los 15.000 km de la red nacional de carreteras sin concesión (autopistas gratuitas, carreteras nacionales), y algunas carreteras provinciales que puedan verse afectadas por tráfico.
 
Objetivo

La recaudación de la tasa para vehículos pesados se destinará a la Agencia de Financiación de Infraestructuras de Francia (AFITF) y a las colectividades territoriales. Una parte de los ingresos de la tasa de circulación se invertirá básicamente en el desarrollo de infraestructuras y de proyectos previstos por la Grenelle de Medio Ambiente en favor del medio ambiente y del fomento del desarrollo sostenible.
 
 
El objetivo de esta tasa es instaurar una fiscalidad equitativa para todos los vehículos pesados con independencia de su nacionalidad y, sobre todo, favorecer la transferencia modal por la repercusión de la tasa en los cargadores. La finalidad es incitar a estos últimos a que influyan en la elección de otros modos de transporte como el flete marítimo o el flete ferroviario.

miércoles, 13 de noviembre de 2013

European Union role against the climate change




Problema y Solución Global

La Unión Europea no debería dejar, sino seguir siendo la vanguardia y el motor mundial en la lucha contra el cambio climático, que probable y desgraciadamente acabamos de ver  sus efectos en fenómenos ambientales extremos en el tifón de Filipinas y el reciente ciclón en Somalia. El fondo internacional, aprobado en la cumbre del clima en Copenhague (2009), de lucha contra el cambio climático debería apoyar a muchos países vulnerables y sin medios para tomar sus medidas de adaptación y prevención para estas catástrofes ambientales  producidas por el cambio climático; aparte de ayudarlos para enfrentarse a las consecuencias de estos fenómenos extremos y subida de aguas de mares, con pérdida de suelos agrícolas por salinidad y  consecuentemente de producción agrícola. El cambio climático es un fenómeno que se ha producido por la emisión global de gases de efecto invernadero y la deforestación, y por ello la responsabilidad de enfrentarse a sus efectos tendría que ser también global a nivel mundial. 
No hay otra solución en esta lucha contra el cambio climático que apostar por la transición energética hacia  las energías renovables y aumentar el ahorro y la eficiencia en el uso de la energía, además de luchar contra las deforestaciones, allá donde sea y promover la reforestación. Los países europeos que más han invertido con buena planificación en energías renovables, Dinamarca, Alemania, Suecia y Países Bajos, aparte de otras razones,  fueron los que mejor han resistido la última crisis económica en Europa.
 Así acaba de afirmarlo Connie Hedegaard, la Comisaria Europea para el Clima.
http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2013/11/13/climat-il-faut-absolument-aboutir-a-un-accord-en-2015_3513225_3244.html

jueves, 13 de junio de 2013